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Slightly older rocks, about 3.8 billion years old, contain traces of organic compounds.In 1952, graduate student Stanley Miller set up an experiment to simulate the conditions in early Earth's oceans and atmosphere.Their pollution changed the atmosphere enough to allow the development of oxygen-dependent life forms.
Miller's sealed system contained water and inorganic compounds like those found in volcanic gases.
He removed the oxygen and inserted electrodes to simulate the lightning that usually accompanies volcanic eruptions, due the atmospheric disruptions by the volcanic dust and gases.
Igneous rocks form over 80 percent of the Earth's surface, both above and below the ocean's surface.
Igneous rocks (rocks from fire) include volcanic (erupted) and plutonic (molten material that cooled before erupting) rocks.
Volcanoes may be devastating in the moment, but ultimately Earth's life would not be the same, if it existed at all, without volcanoes.
Very Short Essay On Volcanoes Top Notch College Essays
The accumulating material forming the Earth came together with varying degrees of violence.Volcanic eruptions continue to add land, whether by extending existing land, as in Hawaii, or by bringing new islands to the surface, as at Surtsey, an island that emerged in 1963 along the mid-ocean ridge near Iceland.Even the shape of the Earth's land masses relates back to volcanoes.The surface scum layer moved, sometimes accumulating into thicker layers and sometimes sinking back into the molten mass.Over time, however, the surface thickened into more permanent layers.Although scientists have not yet triggered life in a flask, the experiments show that the materials of simple life forms developed in the early oceans of Earth.Analysis of DNA from modern life forms, from bacteria to humans, shows that the earliest simple ancestors lived in hot water.Volcanic eruptions carried gases and water out from the Earth's interior.Using today's eruptions as a model, scientists believe the atmosphere generated by those volcanoes consisted of water vapor, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrochloric acid, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and sulfur gases.The friction of the colliding material combined with the heat from radioactive decay. As the spinning molten mass slowed and cooled, the bubbling cauldron developed a solid surface layer.The hot material underneath continued to boil and bubble up to the surface.