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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract and lung parenchyma by microorganisms.Intubation compromises the integrity of the oropharynx and trachea and allows oral and gastric secretions to enter the lower airways.HAP increases a patient's hospital stay by approximately 7-9 days and can increase hospital costs by an average of ,000 per patient.
Investigators have compared the risks of ICU-acquired HAP between gastric and postpyloric feeding.
A systematic review and meta-analysis by Melsen et al found no evidence of mortality attributable to VAP in patients with trauma or acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Pooled data on 17,347 patients showed that among trauma patients, the estimated relative risk was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.37), and among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the relative risk was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.04).
Compliance with the VAP bundle has been most successful when all elements are executed together as an "all or none" strategy.
Five key components for the VAP bundle: Effective March 14 2019, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute has archived the Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) intervention.