Statistics Research Paper

The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors.

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The instrument utilized was the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS) developed by Zhang, Jensen, and Mann in 1996.

This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, positive feedback, and situational consideration.

There were significant differences between the three levels.

When breaking down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze the data.

However, due to the nonrandom nature of the sample, the results would not generalizable beyond the 162 participants in the study. In order to reduce threats to internal validity, the participants were asked to respond honestly and confidentiality was stressed so that the coaches might feel more at ease in responding. The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings.

This could present a threat to the internal validity in that participants might not have been entirely focused on completing the scale, but instead on coordinating practice, completing paperwork, etc.The scale uses 60 statements, which were preceded by In coaching, I: A Likert scale was then given for each statement: 1 = never; 2 = seldom; 3 = occasionally; 4 = often; and 5 = always. Scales were administered in a number of environmental settings: classrooms, gymnasiums, practice fields, and offices.The internal consistency for each section was calculated: 0.84 for training and instruction; 0.66 for democratic; 0.70 for autocratic; 0.52 for social support; 0.78 for positive feedback; and 0.69 for situational consideration.In general, females scored much higher than did the male coaches.A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three levels of coaching (junior high, high school, and college) with regard to leadership behavior in general.There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers.Coaching experience would greatly effect the responses of the participants, yet this was not considered in the study.There was no information, however, regarding the validity of the RLSS.A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female coaches with regard to leadership behaviors.Again, because the data for the RLSS is ordinal, an ANOVA is not the best analysis tool.The three coaching levels scored differently on three of the six behaviors: democratic behaviors, training and instruction, and social support.

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