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If an electronic document does not include page numbering or an equivalent internal referencing system, the extent of the item may be indicated in terms such as the total number of lines, screens, etc., e.g. Because doctoral dissertations involve scholarly work and research, they might serve as effective sources for your research in the social and behavioral sciences, hard sciences and nursing.
They all convey the same information, but they present it differently. You have to rely on the author who you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work.
Wherever possible, it is important to read the original work, but this may be difficult in some instances.
When citing any dissertation in your work, follow this model.
The name may appear in a signal phrase immediately followed by the year, as in "According to Keller (2013)." Alternatively, the entire citation may appear in parentheses, with a comma between, at the borrowed words or ideas: (Keller, 2013).
Longer quotations are indented and single-spaced – quotation marks are not required.
For citations of particular parts of the document the page numbers etc. For summaries or paraphrases give the citation where it occurs naturally or at the end of the relevant piece of writing.
The work by Smith (2000) will be included in your bibliography, as this is where you read about Grant’s research.
However, the work by Grant (1994) is This applies regardless of whether the ideas came from a book, journal article or newspaper, a personal interview or document that you downloaded from the Internet, and regardless of whether or not your work will be published.
Each university has a different referencing system and indeed, the referencing requirements for each course may vary still, so you need to check your individual course guidelines carefully. [Accessed 6 September 2019]; Available from: https://
The Harvard system is by far the most common referencing system used on law courses.