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It is known that in 1596, Queen Elizabeth I ordered the banishment of ten "blackamoors" from her country.
In 1600, in an odd turn of events, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud Anoun, the Moorish ambassador of Elizabeth I, came to England with his entourage.
In a series of letters between Elizabeth and the king of the Barbary Coast, the two colluded for ways the North...
The relationship of time, temperature, and the humors thus lies at the root of these matters: the etymologically related Latin concepts of .
From Aristotle onward, through Galen into Avicenna, and thus integrated into the texts of Renaissance theorists Marcilio Ficino (1489), Timothy Bright (1586), Philip Barrough (1596), Thomas Wright (1603), Thomas Walkington (1607) and, most importantly, Robert Burton (1621), the influence of caloric increases upon the humoral self became a central element in diagnosing a range of psycho-physio-theological troubles.
The formulation is one in which aberration from the "norm" at the level of character serves as a catalyst for narratives that seek to account for that aberration.
Drawing upon the children's tale of a conspicuously one-legged toy soldier entitled in which a child protagonist selects to engage a disabled soldier's tale over those of countless able-bodied soldiers, Mitchell and Snyder offer that The very need for a story is called into being when something has gone amiss with the known world, and thus the language of a tale seeks to comprehend that which has stepped out of line.as an example of early modern narrative prosthesis.Rather than look to visual markers of difference and abnormality upon which claims of narrative prosthesis frequently rely, the essay examines the way presents such difference and abnormality as an inward aspect of the psychosomatic construction of the humoral self.For each of these concerns, humoralism thus comes to offer a sort of receding horizon of normalcy that is generally lacking in post-Cartesian concepts of the self.Disability, in this loose sense, is thus an implicitly ubiquitous feature of early modern English life, and in pursuing disability in early modern literature and culture we confront from the outset a rather different terrain for prosthetic narratives, at once less visibly overt than inward and covert, than that which Mitchell and Snyder propose.One of the large questions facing Shakespeare scholars was that of Elizabethan attitudes toward Moors and others of different races.It is difficult to determine how many English people had actually even ever seen someone with a different color skin than their own.The shift from natural to unnatural humoral forms, likewise, is understood to produce material, humoral excrements and crudities, as well as noxious vapors and fumes which, rising to the brain, transform individuals either by suddenly or progressively leading them into a variety of dangerous, affective states.The inward trauma of a scorched humor, accordingly, manifests outwardly through commensurately traumatic effects in that person's outward show of character.Cassio's drunkenness, after all, registers uniquely in that it is repeatedly identified as an alcoholic "infirmity" — the term is used three times in 2.3 alone: at 41, 127, and 140 — one that leads him to plead with Iago that "I have very poor and unhappy brains for drinking.I could well wish courtesy would invent some other custom of entertainment" (2.3.33-36).