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Neither is this information easily found in specialist textbooks, given that they are not particularly specific and offer only limited characterization.
The superimposed red line is the total number of murders per month after inclusion of Auschwitz victims and Einsatzgruppen shooting victims (see section S1).
The actual Holocaust kill rates for the months of August, September, and October 1942 are highlighted by red dots in the ellipse.
As the Holocaust is often used as a reference frame when studying modern-day genocides, a quantitative view of the Holocaust is essential for understanding how modern genocides differ or are similar to those of the past.
The data-driven results obtained here allow us to revisit past comparisons.
Operation Reinhard (1942–1943) was the largest single murder campaign of the Holocaust, during which some 1.7 million Jews from German-occupied Poland were murdered by the Nazis.
Most perished in gas chambers at the death camps Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.In addition, a large percentage of murders have to be attributed to widespread shooting, since a “Holocaust by Bullets” took place in parallel both in and outside the GG () pointed out in 2004 that the three main death camps “Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka became, from the Spring of 1942, the murder site of almost half of Polish Jewry [i.e., ~1.7 million people], but no scholarly camp monograph has yet been published.” Only recently have historians been able to reconstruct a reasonably accurate picture of the total numbers of victims who perished at the major death camps ().Although population assessments have been undertaken, the data on human lives are considered so highly sensitive that there have been very few attempts to explore it in any depth beyond coarse-scale summaries.Consider, for example, the recent estimate that 5.4 million to 5.8 million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust in the course of World War II, mostly in the 4 years of mass killings of 1941–1945 [(); breakdown in section S1].Statements of this nature have limited explanatory power because, in the end, we are left with a single aggregate number that is bewilderingly large and difficult for the human mind to relate to.Operation Reinhard is shown to be an extreme event, based on kill rate, number, and proportion (99.9%) of the population murdered in camps, highlighting its singularly violent character, even compared to other more recent genocides.The Holocaust kill rate is some 10 times higher than estimates suggested by authorities on comparative genocide.).In the process, we identify kill rates of extreme magnitude that are almost twice as high as the Rwanda genocide and roughly 10 times higher than commonly believed.This paper is generally concerned with Operation Reinhard, which has been referred to as “the largest single murder campaign within the Holocaust” ()—the region known as the General Government (GG).The thick yellow box indicates the range of Holocaust kill rates based on recent erroneously published estimates that assume it to be one-third to one-fifth as intense as the Rwanda genocide kill rate.As indicated, this study also relates to the broader framework that has sprung up in the social sciences over the last two decades, dealing with the patterns and dynamics of warfare, by learning from and by modeling past events ().