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By establishing factories or trade centers on coast lines and river mouths, the English merchants carried on trade with nearby accessible territories.After the Battle of Plessey the Company utilized its political power to enhance the commercial activities.Railways: However, introduction of railways was the milestone in the Indian transport system.
For this reason, there was no compulsion to search for better transport and communication system.
On land, bullock carts, pack-horses, donkeys, camels and even head loads comprised the means of transport.
By that time Kolkata was the capital of the British Empire.
Works on this project started in 1839 to connect Kolkata with Delhi and it known as the Grand Trunk Road.
The English realized that only a railway net work could meet their colonial needs.
Therefore, some Englishmen thought of introducing railways in India.
Some of the important cities, ports and, markets were connected by roads.
But Lord William Bethink first initiated the project to connect Calcutta (Kolkata) with the frontier provinces of India.
It was Rowland Macdonald Stephenson who argued that railways would be the easy and cheap means of transport for British industrial goods to the markets of interior India and for the raw materials to the sea-ports.
Thus, the prospects for construction of proposed railways looked very much lucrative for the English merchants.