Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes.Recently, Sanofi Pasteur’s chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age.
Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes.Tags: Essay Creative Writing BelongingResearch Paper Topics On FinanceLoan Assignment AgreementHamlet Soliloquy Act 4 Scene 4 EssayPoverty In The World Today EssaysInteresting Argument Essay TopicsHomework Elementary SchoolStained Glass EssayCommon Application Essay Tips
Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi, Institute of Home Economics, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India Received 14 March 2016; Revised ; Accepted 1 June 2016Academic Editor: Mario Clerici Copyright © 2016 Niyati Khetarpal and Ira Khanna.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The disease is mainly concentrated in tropical and subtropical regions, putting nearly a third of the human population, worldwide, at risk of infection .
Infection with DENV results in varying degrees of pathological conditions, ranging from mild asymptomatic dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which may turn fatal .
It is expressed as a single polyprotein precursor, which is co/posttranslationally cleaved by viral and host proteases (Figure 1).
The 5′ and 3′ NCRs contain secondary structures and conserved sequences, which are involved in regulation of viral replication.Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden.It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes.The viral RNA is translated as a single polyprotein consisting of structural (light brown-C, pr M, and E) and nonstructural (dark brown-NS1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, and 5) protein components.Symbols C, pr M, E, NS, and PM denote capsid protein, precursor membrane protein, envelope protein, nonstructural proteins, and plasma membrane, respectively.The NS proteins are mainly processed by NS2B-NS3 (viral protease) in the cytoplasm.NS2A/2B and NS4A/4B are transmembrane proteins and thus stay anchored in the ER.Major functions of all the proteins are summarized in Table 1 [11, 12].A three-dimensional image reconstruction of mature dengue virus shows that it is ~50 nm in diameter and consists of an outer protein shell (E and M), a lipid bilayer, and a less characterized nucleocapsid core (C and RNA genome).Currently, dengue is endemic to 128 countries, mostly developing nations, posing a risk to approximately 3.97 billion people annually. The life cycle of Aedes mosquito depending upon the extent of feeding lasts for 8–10 days at room temperature.A recent dengue distribution model has estimated 390 million dengue infections annually, out of which 96 million cases occurred apparently [6, 7]. niveus have been found to play a role as secondary vectors . It consists of two phases: aquatic (larvae, pupae) and terrestrial (eggs, adults) phase. albopictus has become an increasingly important vector as it can easily adapt to new environments, including temperate regions. Aegypti free countries has created opportunities for dengue viruses to enter new locations and cause disease .