Different approaches exist to indicate what practices should form part of TQM.
The objective of the study was to describe the use of TQM practices in Peruvian companies, considering companies from the manufacturing and service sector, and small, medium and large companies.
The following research questions aided in fulfilling the objective of the study: 1.
TQM Practices in Manufacturing and Service Peruvian Companies 47 JCC Journal of CENTRUM Cathedra TQM Practices in Manufacturing and Service Companies in Peru by Ricardo M.
Pino* Professor, CENTRUM Católica, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú Doctor en Administración Estratégica de Negocios, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú Master of Philosophy, Maastricht School of Management, The Netherlands Master of Business Administration, Universidad del Pacífico, Perú Abstract The research study involved exploring how Peruvian companies use TQM practices and the differences in this use considering industrial sector and company size.
TQM practices, and not principles, are observables in a company (Boaden, 1997).
However, consensus does not exist on which practices researchers consider part of TQM (Dow et al., 1999).TQM Practices Several authors made different propositions about what constitutes TQM practices.Figure 1 indicates some of the more recent studies and the quality practices the authors considered part of TQM.Examples of the TQM models include ISO 9000, Malcolm Baldrige, Six Sigma, and the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model.The principles constitute the deepest and most constant part of the management philosophy; however, researchers have not yet reached a consensus on the TQM principles and whether the principles are universal (Powell, 1995; Samson & Terziovski, 1999; Zeitz, Johannesson, & Ritchie, 1997).On the other hand, a company does not need to implement a quality management model to use the management practices associated with the concept.The literature review of TQM practices (Figure 1), illustrated that management practices associated with TQM can be grouped in: those that deal with company s processes, those that involve personnel management, and those that include tools and techniques.Each quality management model contains a group of practices organizations should implement.Auditing of the practices can corroborate whether or not the company is following the model.Research in Peru about quality management is scarce.48 TQM Practices in Manufacturing and Service Peruvian Companies The literature review reflected no research related to the use of TQM practices in Peru.